Accretion/dilution analysis Adjusted present value Associate company Business valuation Conglomerate discount Cost of capital Weighted average Discounted cash flow Economic value added Enterprise value Fairness opinion Financial modeling Free cash flow Free cash flow to equity Market value added Minority interest Modigliani–Miller theorem Net present value Pure play Real options Residual income Stock valuation Sum-of-the-parts analysis Tax shield Terminal value Valuation using multiples
One absolute valuation method which may not be so familiar to most, but is widely used by analysts is the residual income method. In this article, we will introduce you to the underlying basics behind the residual income model and how it can be used to place an absolute value on a firm. (The DDM is one of the most foundational of financial theories, but it's only as good as its assumptions. Check out Digging Into The Dividend Discount Model.)
The main advantage of the residual income metric is that it measures excess return earned by a department in absolute terms. A positive residual income means that the department has met the minimum return requirement while a negative residual income means that the department has failed to meet it. Return on investment (ROI) is another metric which measures return in relative terms.
Residual income is when you continue to get paid after the work is done. This includes royalties from books, movies, or songs and also income that comes from real estate or business investments where you don’t actually have to be present to earn it. For example, Bill Gates is still making a residual income from Microsoft even though he isn’t working there anymore.
You may not think of driving for Uber as a “passive” income strategy, and in many cases, it’s not. What you may not know, however, is that Uber has a feature called “Going my Way” that allows drivers to specify where they are headed and pick up passengers along the way. So why not sign up as an Uber driver and start getting paid for driving where you were already headed anyway?
One of the most appealing options, particularly for millennials, would be #12 on your list (create a Blog/Youtube channel). The videos can be about anything that interests you, from your daily makeup routine (with affiliate links to the products you use), recipes (what you eat each day) or as you mention, instructional videos (again with affiliate links to the products you use). Once you gain a large following and viewership, you can earn via Adsense on YouTube.
Real estate is the obvious choice if you are going to make money on your money. I personally am not at the point where I can do any of this in a meaningful way BUT my parents are and they now own a couple homes outright and are collecting income from them to power their retirement income. It makes a lot more sense for anyone that has a chunk of cash sitting in the bank and are planning on slowly drawing from it because you technically still have all that money in a property (or multiple properties) and can sell them if you really need the lump sum of cash but you’ll earn great interest payments until you do that.
That income is considered residual income because as long as the apartment is rented and the rent is collected, the income is earned without additional effort. The effort came when the property was purchased and a tenant was found. Each month after that, the money automatically is paid without buying the apartment again or finding the same tenant each month.
“There is no such thing as 100% passive income,” says Flynn. “Even with real estate you still have to manage your properties, or even with the stock market, which is potentially passive income, you still have to manage your portfolio. With online business, there is no such thing as 100% passive income — and this is coming from a guy with a blog called SmartPassiveIncome.com. The definition of passive income is ‘building these businesses of automation,’ but in order to keep them automated and keep that trust going with your audience on top of that, you do have to keep it up every once in a while — so a lot of time upfront and a little time after. But there is alway time involved.”
What a great article . I have seen my mother and stepfather ride the roller coaster of MLM for 20 years and it was feast or famine even if you are one of the best salesmen in the world like my step father and con man Sherman Unkefer. One of the best examples is Xango that was a super huge juice craze that preached the residual income lie. Most all of the Xango heavy hitters in the day are long gone after the juice craze fizzled(no pun intended). I was privy to the Xango statements as a beneficiary of my moms trust and it was a continual nose dive in so called residual income . And another thing that they don’t tell you in MLM is that you have to constantly recruit recruit and recruit new members to keep the income flowing . Unkefer worked 80 plus hours a week to try and keep new suckers coming in. That is why the life long MLM hucksters are like Vampires, they constantly need new blood(victims) so they can keep living. These are some of the most evil sick people out there. Trust me I have seen it all.
This is an important concept in personal finance because banks typically use this calculation to measure the affordability of a loan. In other words, does Jim make enough money to pay his existing bills and an additional loan payment? If Jim’s RI is high, his loan application will have a greater chance of being approved. If his RI is low, he will probably get rejected for the loan immediately.
Add Leverage (Mortgage) and you greatly increase the ROI especially from the perspective of using Rents (other peoples money) to pay down the mortgage and increase your equity in the property over time. At this point then yes price appreciation is secondary bonus and we have an arguement of how and why Real Estate can be better than Growth Stocks in some scenarios and for some investors.
If you need cash flow, and the dividend doesn’t meet your needs, sell a little appreciated stock. (or keep a CD ladder rolling and leave your stock alone). At the risk of repeating myself, whether you take cash out of your portfolio in the form of “rent”, dividend, interest, cap gain, laddered CD…., etc. The arithmetic doesn’t change. You are still taking cash out of your portfolio. I’m just pointing out that we shouldn’t let the tail wag the dog. IOW, the primary goal is to grow the long term value of your portfolio, after tax. Period. All other goals are secondary.
Residual income is calculated as net income less a charge for the cost of capital. The charge is known as the equity charge and is calculated as the value of equity capital multiplied by the cost of equity or the required rate of return on equity. Given the opportunity cost of equity, a company can have positive net income but negative residual income.