Coming from traditional employee positions, we are most familiar with linear income. If you work 40 hours per week, you get paid for 40 hours per week. And if you aren’t working, you aren’t getting paid. With residual income, you may put in a lot of unpaid hours upfront but then reap the rewards for months or years down the road. When done correctly, residual income can generate far more money than what it would if you were exchanging your time for an hourly wage.
Residual income is calculated as net income less a charge for the cost of capital. The charge is known as the equity charge and is calculated as the value of equity capital multiplied by the cost of equity or the required rate of return on equity. Given the opportunity cost of equity, a company can have positive net income but negative residual income.